An ELISA reader is a laboratory instrument used to detect and quantify the presence of a specific substance in a sample. ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, which is a common method used to detect and measure the concentration of a particular antigen or antibody in a biological sample, such as blood, urine, or saliva.
The ELISA reader works by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed by the sample after an enzymatic reaction has occurred. In an ELISA assay, a sample is added to a microplate that has been coated with a specific antigen or antibody. If the substance of interest is present in the sample, it will bind to the antigen or antibody on the plate. Then, an enzyme-linked secondary antibody is added, which will bind to the primary antibody and the sample antigen, forming a sandwich. A substrate is then added to the plate, which reacts with the enzyme, causing a color change. The intensity of the color change is proportional to the amount of substance present in the sample.
The ELISA reader then measures the amount of light that is absorbed by the sample and calculates the concentration of the substance based on a standard curve. ELISA readers can be used for a wide range of applications, including medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety testing. ELISA readers come in different types and can vary in their specifications and features, such as the number of wells, the sensitivity, the detection range, and the software used to analyze the results. They are an important tool in many research, clinical, and industrial settings, where the accurate and precise measurement of substances is required.